RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 11, 2017 (1)
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, AMINO AND FATTY ACID PROFILES OF MUSCLE AND FAT TISSUE IN IMMUNOLOGICALLY CASTRATED, SURGICALLY CASTRATED MALE AND FEMALE PIGS
Bahelka I.1, Bučko O.2, Hanusová E.1, Gondeková M.1
1National Agricultural and Food Centre – Research Institute for Animal Production, Lužianky, Slovakia
2Slovak Agricultural University, Nitra, Slovakia
The aim of study was to evaluate chemical composition, amino acid profile of muscle and fatty acid profile of both muscle and back fat in immunological castrated males and compare it with surgically castrated males and female pigs. Forty pigs, immunocastrates (IC), surgical castrates (SC) and gilts (G), progeny of Landrace sows and hybrid (Yorkshire x Landrace) boars, was randomly selected for the experiment. Pigs were housed by pairs in pens according to sex. They were fed commercial feed mixture. Immunocastration of entire males was performed by double vaccination (Improvac®), the first at 50 kg, the second at 80 kg of live weight. Experiment was realized from 30 to 125 kg of live weight. After reaching the slaughter weight, pigs were slaughtered at the experimental slaughter house of the Research Institute for Animal Production according to standard procedure. The second day after slaughter, the dissection of the right half of carcass was done. Samples of muscle (from the neck) and backfat (over the neck) from each pig were taken for analyses of chemical composition, cholesterol content, amino and fatty acid profiles using FTIR spectroscopy. Immunocastrates had significantly higher content of crude protein than surgical castrates (21.09 vs. 20.34 %, P<0.05). On the other hand, they had lower content of cholesterol as well as crude fat compared with barrows (0.44 vs. 0.54 %, P<0.05; 3.23 vs. 4.83 %, P<0.01). Amino acid profile of pig muscle was very similar in all three sexes and differences were not significant. However, fatty acid profile of pig muscle showed differences between sexes. Immunocastrates had significantly lower content of oleic and eicosanoic fatty acid compared to barrows (42.42 vs. 46.60 %, P<0.01 and 0.62 vs. 0.74 %, P<0.01). They also had better PUFA/SFA ratio that could be profitable from the human health point of view. Content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in barrows (6.94 %) was lower than in gilts (8.77 %, P<0.05) and immunocastrates (8.54 %, P=0.05). Fatty acid profile of back fat did not show any significant differences between immunocastrates, surgical castrates and females.
Key words: Immunocastration, amino acid, fatty acid, chemical composition