RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 10, 2016 (1)
AMINO AND FATTY ACIDS PROFILE, AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MUSCLE AND BACKFAT IN ENTIRE MALE, SURGICALLY CASTRATED AND FEMALE PIGS
Bahelka I.1, Bučko O.2, Hanusová E.1, Gondeková M.1
1National Agricultural and Food Centre – Research Institute for Animal Production, Lužianky, Slovakia
2Slovak Agricultural University, Nitra, Slovakia
The aim of the study was to compare chemical and amino acid composition of muscle as well as fatty acid content of both muscle and backfat in entire males, surgical castrates and gilts. Total of 42 hybrid fatteners was included into the experiment. Pigs were divided into three groups (each of 14) according to sex. They were housed by pairs in the pens and fed commercial feed mixture. The fattening was realized from 30 to 105 kg of live weight. After that, pigs were slaughtered at experimental abattoir according to standard slaughter procedure. Twenty-four hours after slaughter, the dissection of the right half of carcasses was done. Subsequently, samples of muscle from the neck and backfat over the neck were taken. The analyses of chemical composition, amino and fatty acid content were realized by the FTIR method. Entire males reached the lowest crude fat and cholesterol contents which were significantly different from those of castrates (2.52 vs 3.14 %, 0.31 vs 0.41 %, P<0.05). Amino acid profile of muscle in boars differed substantially from that of barrows. All the values of amino acids except cysteine were significantly higher in entire males. Smaller differences between sexes were found in fatty acid composition of muscle since only three parameters were significantly different between entire males and castrates – the first ones had lower oleic (41.71 vs 47.42 %) and eicosanoic (0.60 vs 0.67) as well as higher linolenic (2.06 vs 1.92 %) fatty acid than castrates. In the backfat, entire males had lower content of saturated fatty acids and higher content of mono- and polyunsaturated, n6 and n3 fatty acids than barrows (and some cases also gilts). Therefore, pork and fat from entire males could be more beneficial from the human health point of view.
Key words: pigs, entire males, pork, amino acid, fatty acid